Software and Systems
UML: Electronic Prescription Service (EPS)
OBJECT ORIENTED DESIGN (UML)
Electronic Prescription Service
You are required to design object-oriented software for EPS which allows prescribers
to send prescriptions electronically to a dispenser (such as a pharmacy) of the patient’s
choice. This makes the prescribing and dispensing process more efficient and
convenient for patients and staff.
The Electronic Prescription Service enables prescribers – such as general practitioners
(GPs) and practice nurses – to send prescriptions electronically to a dispenser (such as
a pharmacy) of the patient’s choice.
Access to the EPS is controlled through the use of the NHS Smartcard having user’s
name, photograph and unique identity number printed on, and with embedded smart
chip. The Smartcard gives individual users different levels of access depending on
Prescriber logs onto the clinical system using their Smartcard and passcode, chooses
medication or medical appliance for the patient, adds prescribing endorsements where
required, and applies electronic signature to authorize the electronic prescription.
Electronic prescription is transmitted to the EPS. Prescription token is printed where
required. Authorized person hands prescription token to patient where necessary.
Paper copies of electronic prescriptions are called tokens. They act as a hard copy of
the details contained within the electronic prescription. There are two types of tokens –
‘prescription tokens’ and ‘dispensing tokens’. When the EPS is fully introduced, paper
copies of electronic prescriptions will no longer be needed but should still be available
by request, whenever necessary.
A dispenser (or dispensing contractor) is any organization that dispenses NHS primary
care prescriptions to patients, such as a community pharmacy, a dispensing appliance
contractor or a dispensing GP practice. With EPS, only prescriptions sent to a
patient’s nominated dispensing contractor can be signed and sent electronically.
Dispenser retrieves electronic prescriptions from the EPS. It could be done in three
ways either by automatic download (e.g. overnight), by manually entering the
prescription ID printed on the token, or by scanning a barcode on a prescription token.
Dispensing token is printed if required. Prescription items are issued to the patient or
Dispenser should record the status of each of the prescription items as one of the
‘dispensed’, ‘not dispensed’, ‘owing’ or ‘partial’. In order to complete the dispensing
process the whole prescription has to be completed, meaning that all prescribed items
must be marked as either ‘dispensed’ or ‘not dispensed’. Some clinical systems will
automatically record the status of dispensed items.
If dispensing process is complete, dispenser should send dispense notification to the
Electronic Prescription Service. The message informs the EPS which medication
has/has not been supplied to the patient. A schedule will be issued for pharmacists to
follow as to when to submit the electronic reimbursement endorsement message. The
electronic reimbursement endorsement message can only be sent once the dispense
notification message has been sent for the electronic prescription.
To support the reimbursement claim process, the EPS will allow dispensers to
electronically submit reimbursement endorsement messages to the reimbursement
agency for the dispensed electronic prescriptions so that the reimbursement agency
can make a payment. The messages are sent according to the reimbursement agency
This assignment has been selected because it concerns a system for which the
requirements are widely understood and do not require expert knowledge. If you are
concerned about the appropriateness of any elaboration explain your reasons for the
This coursework contributes 30% of the total mark for Software and Systems module.
Assessment is based on a report containing the relevant UML diagrams produced to
design this system. Clearly the report must fully address all relevant issues. The
assignment is open-ended but it is important that all diagrams of the design process
are considered to a reasonable level of detail.
The figures, tables and pages should be numbered. Captions should be beneath figures
and above tables.
The report must be submitted via canvas as one single pdf file by 14:00 on Thursday,
th January 2020.
Marks distribution will be as follows:
a) Introduction, which includes the discussion and interpretation of the
specification, which should identify any issues that require clarification.
b) Use-Case Diagram, Survey description and CRC cards. (30%)
c) Detailed class diagram with all attributes, methods, their visibilities,
arguments, return types and relationships to define architecture. (20%)
d) Detailed interaction diagrams, both collaboration and sequence diagram.
e) Detailed state chart diagram to show events, actions and qualifiers. (10%)
f) Discussion of non-functional requirements. (5%)
g) Produce pseudocode for major functions. (10%)
3. Resources available
This assignment involves the development of designs on paper. It should be possible
to draw good quality design diagrams using Word or other word processing package,
adopting the correct notation. There is no need to use any Object-Oriented Design
Tools. This is because learning curve associated with object-oriented design tools is
normally steep. Many design consultants use graphical design programs and not
object-oriented design tools to document designs. Two tools that you might find
useful are Visio (might require licence) and ArgoUML (http://argouml.tigris.org/).
It is a requirement to complete all three sections of Table below, and include the
completed template as the first page of assignment that is submitted for marking.
Reflecting on the feedback that I have received on previous assessments, the following
issues/topics have been identified as areas for improvement: (add 3 bullet points). NB – for
first year students/PGTs in the first term, this refers to assessments in their previous
In this assignment, I have attempted to act on previous feedback in the following ways (3
Feedback on the following aspects of this assignment (i.e. content/style/approach) would be
particularly helpful to me: (3 bullet points)
A word of caution
“Plagiarism will not be tolerated. It is the act of a Student claiming as their own, intentionally or
by omission, work which was not done by that Student. Plagiarism also includes a Student
deliberately claiming to have done work submitted by the Student for assessment which was
never undertaken by that Student, including self-plagiarism and the other breaches. Sanctions of
a plagiarism include the Student failing the Programme of study”.
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